Nubia 3100 B.C.E- 320 C.E
Nubia has been applied to a thousand mile stretch roughly occupying both sides of the Nile River valley between Aswān, Egypt, and Khartoum, Sudan. The area of the
File:Nubia today.png
File:Nubia today.png

region in northeastern Sudan is called the Nubian Desert. In ancient times Nubia was called Kush and was ruled by Egypt for some 1800 years. In the 8th century BC the Nubians achieved independence and dominated Egypt. After maintaining some degree of independence for more than 2000 years, Nubia was conquered by the Arabs in the 14th century and by Egypt in 1820. In the late 19th century the region was controlled by the Muslim revolutionary leader known as the Mahdi."[1]
a history could be explained through two distinctive periods: The Early cultures and Egyptian domination (2300-1100 B.C.E) and the Kingdom of Meroë ( 800 B.C.E-300 C.E).
“From Late Antiquity and into the early Middle Ages, Upper and Lower Nubia formed three independent kingdoms, Nubadia (called Nubia in Arabic) between the First and Third Cataracts, Makuria between the Third and Fifth Cataracts, and Alodia (called Alwa in Arabic) above the Fifth Cataract. These kingdoms converted to Christianity around the sixth century AD, long after Egypt had become Christian. However, they maintained that faith centuries after Egypt had succumbed to the forces of Islam.”[2]
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Humans and their Environment:
Due to its location Nubia often served as a corridor for trade between tropical Africa and the Mediterranean. Nubia was endowed with natural resources such as gold, copper and semiprecious stones. Location and natural wealth, as well as Egypt’s hunger for Nubian gold explain the early rise of civilizations with complex political organization, social stratification,
external image magnify-clip.pngNubian woman circa 1900metallurgy, monumental building, and writing. Other important factor of Nubia was the Nile River, which was essential for agriculture, travel and trade.

Culture:
The population came out of the Sahara region towards the Nile valley where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. Animals were domesticated for the first time and hunting grew less important. Soon came the development of pottery. The ceramics from this period, the oldest surviving in the world, are stunningly beautiful and refined. Ceramic objects were produced not only for domestic use but also for religions ceremonies. “In around 3500 B.C. a more developed culture can be round in the region between the first and second cataract of the Nile. The Egyptians called this region Ta-Sety, 'The Land of the Bow'[3], the Nubians were famous archers. Throughout, the history of Nubia many religions came about, however the one that predominated the most was the Egyptian.”[4] Nubians erected temples to many Egyptian gods, particularly Amon. The frequent depiction of Amon with the head of ram may reflect a blending of the chief Egyptian god with the Nubian Ram deity. Later, in the Kingdom Meroe, they developed their own form of writing, first utilizing Egyptian hieroglyphs and later using an alphabetic script with 23 signs.
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Social:
One highlighted tradition between the Nubians was that children from elite families were brought to the Egyptian royal court to guarantee the good behavior of their relatives in Nubia. Unlike other culture, women in Nubia were treasured and held on higher status. Many think this appreciation was because they had mothered legendary gods. Nubian men and women often married during childhood with ceremonies that often lasted up to 40 days. Honesty was a sacred trait for people in Nubia. Social status depended on how much land and cattlemen owned, as well as noble blood.

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Politics: Nubia was ruled by a monarchy. This came from the Egyptian influence of having pharaohs. However unlike Egypt women in the royal family played and important role in politics (influence of sub shaaran Africa). Nubian queens ruled by themselves and sometimes in partnerships with their husbands. They played an important role in warfare, diplomacy and the building of temples and pyramid tombs. Kings of ancient Nubia had 3 jobs: the political leader, the spiritual head and the military warlord.
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Economics:
The personal wealth of Nubia came from their control of trade. The main exports from the kingdom were the products of mining and hunting. Both of these activities came under the direct control of the king. Taxes were often paid to Egyptian officials and Nubia was richly endowed with natural resources such as gold, copper and semiprecious stones.




[1]http://www.slideshare.net/Sauda/nubia-the-other-egypt-presentation


[2]http://looklex.com/e.o/nubia.htm

[3]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubia
[4]
Bulliet, Richard. Earth and Its People, AP Edition, (Boston: Wadsworth, 2011) Page 65-68